Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that currently affects more than 400 million worldwide and is projected to cause 552 million cases by the year 2030. Long-term vascular complications, such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients.
The recent advances in genome-wide technologies have given a powerful impetus to the study of risk markers for multifactorial diseases. To date, the role of genetic and epigenetic factors in modulating susceptibility to T2DM and its vascular complications is being successfully studied that provides the accumulation of genomic knowledge. In the future, this will provide an opportunity to reveal the pathogenetic pathways in the development of the disease and allow to predict the macrovascular complications in T2DM patients. This review is focused on the evidence of the role of genetic variants and epigenetic changes in the development of macrovascular pathology in diabetic patients.
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